Neuroendoscopy describes the use of a small fiber-optic camera attached to an endoscope to gain access to the brain, spine and peripheral nervous system using a "minimally invasive" approach. Endoscopes look like small telescopes but are actually more like small microscopes since they allow illumination and visualization of objects up close rather than far away.

Neuroendoscopy has a wide variety of uses in neurosurgery including biopsy or resection of certain types of tumors. Additionally, it can be used to fenestrate (create an opening in) cysts and other structures to allow drainage of fluid and relieve increased intracranial pressure or hydrocephalus.